Most Groundwater Sustainability Agencies will need to increase supply, manage demand, or do both to achieve sustainable groundwater management under SGMA.
Below are some potential actions that a GSA may undertake:
Groundwater recharge describes natural or artificial replenishment of an aquifer. Recharge can occur naturally through precipitation, runoff or surface water infiltration or artificially via spreading basins, injections wells, conjunctive management and irrigation return flow.
Conjunctive use refers to the coordinated management of both surface and groundwater resources as a single source. Reliance on groundwater in dry in years is offset by managed recharge of aquifers in year with above average precipitation.
Once thought of as a nuisance, stormwater is now being seen as a source for recharging depleted groundwater basins.
Wastewater can be treated for groundwater recharge or landscape irrigation.
Agricultural Water Use efficiency
Ongoing improvements in agricultural water use efficiency have resulted from technological improvements in watering infrastructure, the integration of real-time monitoring, and a better understanding of crop water requirements.
Urban Water Use Efficiency
Tiered water rates, outdoor water use regulations, landscape reform programs, and rebates on efficient indoor appliances are some of the tools being employed by cities to reduce consumption.
Markets and Trading
Water markets and trading can provide flexibility in managing water supplies. Trading goes by many different names, including markets, transfers, credit programs, banking, pooling, and exchanges.
water allocation systems
In some basins, GSAs may choose to develop groundwater allocation schemes to ensure that GSPs meet their sustainability goal and avoid state intervention.