Projects and Actions

Photo courtesy of Department of Water Resources

Most Groundwater Sustainability Agencies will need to increase supply, manage demand, or do both to achieve sustainable groundwater management under SGMA. 
Below are some potential actions that a GSA may undertake:

Increase supply

​Groundwater Recharge


​​Groundwater recharge describes natural or artificial replenishment of an aquifer. Recharge can occur naturally through precipitation, runoff or surface water infiltration or artificially via spreading basins, injections wells, conjunctive management and irrigation return flow.

​Conjunctive Use


​Conjunctive use refers to the coordinated management of both surface and groundwater resources as a single source. Reliance on groundwater in dry in years is offset by managed recharge of aquifers in year with above average precipitation.  

​Stormwater Recharge


Once thought of as a nuisance, stormwater is now being seen as a source for recharging depleted groundwater basins.

​Recycled Water


​Wastewater can be treated for groundwater recharge or landscape irrigation.

Demand Management

​Agricultural Water Use efficiency


Ongoing improvements in agricultural water use efficiency have resulted from technological improvements in watering infrastructure, the integration of real-time monitoring, and a better understanding of crop water requirements.  

​Urban Water Use Efficiency


Tiered water rates, outdoor water use regulations, landscape reform programs, and rebates on efficient indoor appliances are some of the tools being employed by cities to reduce consumption. ​

​Markets and Trading


Water markets and trading can ​provide flexibility in managing water supplies. ​Trading goes by many different names, including markets, ​transfers, credit programs, banking, pooling, and exchanges.​​

water allocation ​systems

​​​In some basins, GSAs may choose to develop groundwater allocation schemes to ensure that GSPs meet their sustainability goal and avoid state intervention.